CRISPR, short for CRISPR-Cas9, is a genome-editing tool that allows scientists to precisely cut and modify DNA sequences. It has revolutionized the study of genes, helped to enhance crops and improved health care.

The gene-editing system was originally discovered in bacteria, where it limits infections by clipping viral DNA. Then, in Nobel prize-winning work, this bacterial defense apparatus was co-opted by scientists to devise a new approach to genome editing. 

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